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The diagrams below show the crystals of four different rocks viewed through the same hand lens. Which crystals most likely formed from molten material that cooled and solidified most rapidly?
Base your answer to this question on the geologic cross section below. Overturning has not occurred. The dike and sills shown in the cross section are igneous intrusions.
Which rock type is the oldest?
Two streams begin at the same elevation and have equal volumes. Which statement best explains why one stream could be flowing faster than the other stream?
The diagram below shows a section of a meander in a stream. The arrows show the direction of stream flow.
The stream bank on the outside of this meander is steeper than the stream bank on the inside of this meander because the water on the outside of this meander is moving
Compared to Earth’s crust, Earth’s core is believed to be
The cross section below shows sedimentary bedrock layers A, B, C, and D exposed at Earth’s surface.
Which layer appears to be the least resistant to weathering?
The four particles shown in the table below are of equal volume and are dropped into a column filled with water.
Which particle would usually settle most rapidly?
Which cross section best shows the pattern of sediments deposited by the stream as it enters the ocean?
The apparent rising and setting of the Sun, as viewed from Earth, is caused by
The diagram below shows wind flowing over a mountain range.
As the wind flows down the leeward side of the mountain range, the air becomes
The cross section below shows the direction of movement of an oceanic plate over a mantle hot spot, resulting in the formation of a chain of volcanoes labeled A, B, C, and D. The geologic age of volcano C is shown.
What are the most likely geologic ages of volcanoes B and D?
The diagrams below represent Earth’s ocean tides at four different positions of’ the Moon. Which diagram shows the Moon position that will produce the highest high tides and the lowest low tides?
(The diagrams are not drawn to scale).
Compared to the thickness and density of the continental crust of South America, the oceanic crust of the Pacific floor is
The map shows the locations of deep-sea core drilling sites numbered 1 through 4.
At which drilling site would the oldest igneous bedrock most likely be found?
The table below shows the hardness of four common materials.
Which statement best describes the hardness of the mineral dolomite?
Which sample below best shows the physical properties normally associated with regional metamorphism?
Base your answers to Questions 17 to 19 on the geologic cross section below in which overturning has not occurred. Letters A through H represent rock layers.
Which sequence of events most likely caused the unconformity shown at the bottom of rock layer B?
The folding of rock layers C through H was most likely caused by
Which two letters represent bedrock of the same age?
The block diagram below represents caves that developed in a region over time.
Which type of weathering was primarily responsible for the development of these caves?
Under identical conditions, which surface will reflect the greatest amount of insolation?
Scientists have inferred the structure of Earth’s interior mainly by analyzing
What type of reproduction does not require fertilization?
Which of the following statements is NOT true of mitosis?
Which title is an appropriate heading for column X?
The following organs secrete digestive enzymes except
Which of the following statements best explains why birds fly south for the winter?
A temporary suspension of the menstrual cycle normally occurs during
A drastic change in the metabolic rate of a human would most likely result from the
Which diagram represents the binary fission?
The spotted touch-me-not, a flowering plant, has seed pods that burst open when touched and forcefully eject their seeds. Such an adaptation is favourable because it
Which of the following statements is true about the difference between photosynthesis and respiration?
Based on the fact that a watermelon contains many seeds, what can be inferred about a normal flower of a watermelon plant?
How are fraternal twins developed?
One cat carries heterozygous, brown-fur trait (Aa), and its mate carries homozygous, white-fur trait (aa). What is the probability that the kitten will have a brown fur?
How do bacteria reproduce?
In the food chain shown below, which of the consumers get the most energy?
Which of the following examples shows commensalism?
Surprisingly, a fish’s caudal (tail) fin, is not used for propulsion. Fins are used primarily for stability and steering. In order to swim, a fish needs to be able to flex its body back and forth very rapidly. To create this motion, a fish’s muscles are arranged in a series of waves or segments called myomeres.
Fish have two kinds of muscle fibers, white and red. White myomeres are used for short bursts of swimming. Groupers and other slow- moving fish have almost all white myomeres. Open-sea fish, such as the tuna and mackerel, are capable of cruising at high speed for long periods of time. The blood in their red muscle fibers is rich in a pigment called myoglobin, which can carry large amounts of oxygen. The oxygen nourishes muscle cells, enabling them to work harder for longer periods of time.
Cellular respiration requires the oxidation of fuel that is in the form of organic molecules. In the fish, which of the following is (are) responsible for carrying large amounts of oxygen?
A student used a compound light microscope to obtain data on the concentration of stomates in leaves. The student observed a small area of the lower epidermis of a leaf and counted two stomates in the high-power field of view. The student then observed an area of equal size from the upper epidermis of the same leaf and found no stomates in the high-power field of view. After making these observations, the student should
On dissecting a fish, a biologist saw that it had large quantities of red muscle fibers. From this observation he can assume that this fish:
The scientific name of an animal is printed in italic type and has two parts. The first word (capitalized) is the name of the genus to which the animal belongs. The second word (lower case) is the name of its species within the genus. Here are the English and scientific names of five birds:
I. American robin, Turdus migratorius
II. European robin, Erithacus rubecula
III. European blackbird, Turdus merula
IV. Military macaw, Ara militaris
V. Red-breasted blackbird, Sturnella militaris
Of the following pairs in the choices above, which belong to the same genus?
A scientific study showed that the depth at which algae were found in a lake varied from day to day. On clear days, the algae were found as much as 6 meters below the surface of the water but were only 1 meter below the surface on cloudy days. Which hypothesis best explains these observations?
Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, a liquid differs from a gas because the particles of the liquid
Compared to the charge and mass of a proton, an electron has…
Which symbols represent atoms that are isotopes?
What is the mass number of an atom which contains 28 protons, 28 electrons, and 34 neutrons?
Which element has the highest ionization energy?
Given the reaction
What amount of oxygen is needed to completely react with 1 mole of CH4?
Which combination of atoms can form a polar covalent bond?
Balance the following redox equation occurring in aqueous solution:
What is the stoichiometric coefficient for oxygen (O2) when the equation is balanced with smallest whole number coefficients?
Which substance cannot be decomposed into simpler substances?
What is the usual relationship of theoretical yield and percent yield?
Which of the following statements is/are not true?
I. The limiting reactant limits the velocity of the reaction.
II. The limiting reactant determines the quantity of the product formed.
III. The limiting reactant can further be consumed by adding more of the excess reactant.
The phase change represented by the equation is called
According to Boyle’s Law, what happens to the volume if the pressure occupied by a certain gas is doubled?
Which statement explains why the speed of some chemical reactions is increased when the surface area of the reactant is increased?
Which solution will change red litmus to blue?
Which statement represents a conclusion rather than an experimental observation?
Which is the best definition of electronegativity?
Which solution is the most concentrated?
A substance releases heat when it changes from
Salt A and salt B were dissolved separately in 100 mL beakers of water. The water temperatures were measured and recorded as shown in the table below:
Salt A: initial water temp- 25.1°C
final water temp. 30.2°C
Salt B: initial water temp – 25.1°C
final water temp. 20.0°C
Which statement is a correct interpretation of these data?
If an object is moving eastward and slowing down, then the direction of its friction force vector is ____________.
Mass remains ______ throughout the universe.
A book is at rest on top of a table. Which of the following statements is correct?
According to Newton’s First Law of Motion, __________.
If the forces acting upon a moving object are balanced, then the object
An object moves at a constant speed of 6 m/s. This means that the object:
If a moving object cuts its speed in half, how much momentum will it have?
A rifle recoils from firing a bullet. The speed of the rifle’s recoil is small because ______.
A freight train rolls along a track with considerable momentum. If it rolls at the same speed but has twice as much mass, its momentum is ________________.
In order to catch a ball, a baseball player moves his or her hand backward in the direction of the ball’s motion. Doing this reduces the force of impact on the players hand principally because ________.
What is the work done against gravity in moving a box with a mass of 5 kg through a height of 3 m?
As a rock falls from a cliff, its total mechanical energy is equal to
When a person stands on a scale in an elevator at rest, the scale reads 800 N. When the elevator is allowed to fall freely with acceleration of gravity, the scale reads _____.
The following graph represents the position as a function of time for a moving object.
Which of the following is true?
An observer on the ground would hear a sonic boom which is created by an airplane flying at a speed of _________.
If the distance between two masses is increased by a factor of 4, the gravitational force of attraction between them will
A rock is swung on the end of a rope in a horizontal circle at constant speed. The rope breaks. Immediately after the rope breaks, the ball will
What happens to the speed and frequency of a light ray when it passes from air into water?
The graph represents the relationship between velocity and time for an object moving in a straight line. Use this graph to answer the two questions below.
Which of the following statements is true?
What is the displacement of the object after traveling for 5 sec?
A ringing bell is located in a chamber. When the air is removed from the chamber, why can the bell be seen vibrating but not be heard?
A straight glass rod appears to bend when placed in a beaker of water, as shown in the diagram below.
What is the best explanation for this phenomenon?
Which of the shapes below replaces the missing box above?